N a Bouvardia sp. imported from Uganda. The new species clusters because the closest phylogenetic relative of N. catenata (Fig. 14), an opportunistic animal-pathogenic species characterised by abundant production of catenate to clustered, pigmented chlamydospores, and by the absence (as far as recognized) of macroconidia (O’Donnell et al. 2016, Sandoval-Denis Crous 2018). These characters type essentially the most notable differences with respect to N. epipeda. Moreover, N. epipeda may be differentiated from N. catenata by its lessFig. 36. Neocosmospora epipeda (CBS 146524). A . Aerial conidiophores and conidiogenous cells. D. Microconidia. E, F. Sporodochia formed on the surface of carnation leaves. G. Sporodochial conidiophores and conidiogenous cells. H. Macroconidia. Scale bars: A = 20 m; E, F = 200 m; D, G, H = 10 m.FUSARIUM septate and shorter microconidia (aseptate and as much as 13.5 m vs up to 1-septate and 11 m in N. catenata). Other species creating macroconidia of comparable size and shape to those of N. epipeda consist of N. quercicola, N. robusta, and N. silvicola; on the other hand, the three latter species are genetically distant in that they belong to monophyletic lineages of clade three (N. quercicola and N. silvicola) and clade 1 (N. robusta) of Neocosmospora sensu O’Donnell et al. (2008a). Neocosmospora epipeda might be distinguished morphologically from N. robusta by the production of microconidia with absence of aerial macroconidia Bcl-W manufacturer within the former species. Morphological differentiation in the novel species from N. quercicola and N. silvicola is tricky due to overlapping functions; nonetheless, subtle variations exist within the size and morphology on the microconidia (aseptate in N. epipeda vs up to 1-septate in both N. quercicola and N. silvicola, becoming also reniform and longer inside the latter species) and sporodochial colour (pale luteous to orange in N. epipeda vs greenish to citrine in N. quercicola and N. silvicola, respectively). Neocosmospora merkxiana Quaedvl. Sand.-Den., sp. nov. MycoBank MB 838670. Fig. 37. Etymology: Named following Trix Merkx, senior technician at the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, in recognition of her career as the foremost link in strain handling in between the investigation groups as well as the culture collection. Typus: Netherlands, from Chrysanthemum sp. imported from Uganda, unknown date, W. Quaedvlieg (holotype CBS H24669, culture ex-type CBS 146525 = CPC 38701). Conidiophores borne on the agar substrate and aerial mycelium, 9905 m tall, unbranched or seldom laterally branched, bearing terminal single phialides; aerial conidiogenous cells monophialidic, subulate to JAK Inhibitor MedChemExpress subcylindrical, smooth- and thin-walled, 41.57 two.five.5 m, with brief and flared apical collarettes and inconspicuous periclinal thickening. Aerial conidia of two forms: microconidia oval to broadly ellipsoidal, straight to slightly curved and asymmetrical, smooth- and thin-walled, 0()-aseptate, (8.595.5(8.5) three.5 m (av. 12.4 4.3 ), arranged in false heads on phialide suggestions; macroconidia falcate to navicular, smooth- and thin-walled, pretty much straight to slightly dorsiventrally curved, ventral face nearly straight, having a blunt apical cell, basal cell obtuse to poorly-developed, footshaped, 1-septate, predominantly 1-septate, 1-septate conidia: (17.520.57(0.five) (4.55.5(.five) m (av. 23.eight five.eight m); 2-septate conidia: (25.five 270(two) five.5 m (av. 28.four 6 m); 3-septate conidia: (2728.53.5(5.five) five.five m (av. 31.1 six.3 m); general: (17.5221(5.five) (four.55.five(.5) m (av. 26.four six m), arranged in fa.